Probiotics

Probiotics

  • Bifidobacterium bifidum
  • Bifidobacterium longum
  • Saccharomyces boulardii
  • Lactobacillus paracasei
  • Lactobacillus sporogenes Lacris-S
  • Lactobacillus sporogenes LS-11

1.What are probiotics?

Probiotics are microorganisms which can benefit and improve human health.
Probiotics attach and live in the human intestinal tract. These helpful microorganisms compete with harmful germs in our gut, promote bowel movement, balance immune system, relieve allergies and irritable bowel syndrome.

 

2. What are probiotics?

Prebiotics are substances that induce the growth or activity of probiotics. The most common prebiotics are β-glucan, oligosaccharides, etc.

3.The benefits of probiotics :

Probiotics benefits are listed in the following figure (Source: WHO & FAO expert group meeting).

參考文獻

(1) Probiotics for the treatment or prevention of atopic dermatitis: a review of the evidence from randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2008;9(2):93-103.
(2) Probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Apr 18;(2):CD004827
(3) Probiotics in allergic diseases of childhood MMW Fortschr Med. 2006 Aug 31;148(35-36):34-6.
(4) Microbial-gut interactions in health and disease. Probiotics. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2004 Apr;18(2):299-313.
(5) The role of microbiota and probiotics in stress-induced gastro-intestinal damage Curr Mol Med. 2008 Jun;8(4):282-98
(6) Probiotics: a role in the treatment of intestinal infection and inflammation? Gut. 2002 May;50 Suppl 3:III54-9

Bifidobacterium bifidum: the strongest adhesion to human intestinal cell

獨特作用

Bifidobacterium bifidum is a gram-positive anaerobic probiotic strain. The unique polysaccharide component in its cell wall contributes to the strongest adhesion to the epithelial cell among the other strains.

Bifidobacterium strains(Bifidobacterium strains) Mean numbers of adhering bifidobacteria per 50 Caco-2 cells
Bifidobacterium bifidum 500
E2-18 168
E-15 132
JS-9 84
RD-54 67
SI 61
SH-2 47
RD-60 42
B.bifidum ATCC2952 35
CN2 30
SJ-32 26
KJ 24
B.animalis ATCC2552 22
B.adolescentis ATCC15703 19
SH-5 17
B.infantis ATCC15697 15
B.longum ATCC15707 11
M-6 10
MS-1 10

The adhesion of Bifidobacterium bifidum is characterized by using enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells (human intestinal cell). As listed in the table, Bifidobacterium bifidum showed the highest adhesion to Caco-2 cells (Bifidobacterium bifidum: 10 cells adhering to each intestinal cell, other strains: approx. 2 cells adhering to each intestinal cell).

AIM (Allergy Immunity Modulation)

The outstanding adhesion of Bifidobacterium bifidum contributes to the support of gut flora and regulates signal transduction via intestinal M cells, including:

  • (1)Normalize IgA secretion
  • (2)Activate Th-1 and T-reg pathway; reduce inflammation
  • (3)Activate macrophage to secrete NO, IL-6 and IL-10.

Stability of Bifidobacterium bifidum

Acid Tolerance Test

Bile Tolerance Test

  • Acid Tolerance Test:Bifidobacterium bifidum showed good tolerance to low pH; survive at pH 2.0 for 5.5 h.
  • Bile Tolerance Test:Bifidobacterium bifidum showed good tolerance to bile salt; survive in 1% bile salt for 5.5 h.

Bifidobacterium bifidum Korea Patent
Patent NO.KR 635454(2006.10.11)
Anti-allergy patent

Composition for prevention and treatment of food allergy containing Bifidobacterium bifidum as active ingredient.

Bifidobacterium bifidum Korea Patent
Patent NO.KR 554346(2006.02.15)
Anti-tumor patent

A new anti-cancer polysaccharide from the genus Bifidobacterium.


Bifidobacterium longum: unique strain for anti-rotavirus

獨特作用

(1)Anti-Rotavirus

 

Bifidobacterium longum is a gram-positive anaerobic probiotic strain which can secrete a special protein for inhibition of rotavirus.

(2)Anti-Rotavirus syndrome

Acid Tolerance Test: Bifidobacterium longum could survive at pH 2.0 for 3 h.

Bile Tolerance Test: Bifidobacterium longum could survive in 1% bile salt for more than 6 h.

Patents active protein in Bifidobacterium longum


Boulardii SB-55 features

Boulardii SB-55 is the only yeast with probiotic properties, including the adhesion to gut epithelial cell and the improvement of human gut health. More than 50 years’ studies have shown that the unique receptors on Boulardii cell surface contribute to gut health.

Researchers found that polysaccharide components in Boulardii are able to neutralize harmful substances, such as bacterial toxins and pathogenic proteins. The combination of lactic acid bacteria and Boulardii acts synergistically to stimulate the secretion of cytokines, enhance immune activity, regulate bowel movement, reduce inflammation, and improve gut health.

Unique functions of Boulardii SB-55

  • 1. Neutralize harmful enteric germs and toxins.
  • 2. Form a protective layer on enteric mucosa. Promote the recovery of enteric mucosa. Reshapie your gut environment for probiotic colonization.
  • 3. Promote enzyme secretion (disaccharidases) for lactose digestion.

Lactobacillus paracasei is a gram-positive species of lactic acid bacteria. It can secrete lactic acids to change the gut environment and flora to improve gut health. Researchers found the Lactobacillus paracasei effectively induce IFN-γ to regulate the signal transduction and balance immune system.


Lactobacillus paracasei: immune regulation

獨特作用

    • Induction of high levels of IFN-γ secretion

    • Peptidoglycans of Lactobacillus paracasei cell wall activate Toll-like receptor (TLR) to release high levels of cytokines, and stimulate cell proliferation.

    • Altered gut micro flora

Lactobacillus paracasei changes your gut flora by the competition with enteric pathogens for adhesion to enteric mucosa.(Reference: Competition of Lactobacillus paracasei with Salmonella enteric for adhesion to Caco2 Cell. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology Volume 2008, Article ID 357964.)

Lactobacillus paracasei significantly reduces adhesion of Salmonella to Caco-2 cells.

Stability of Lactobacillus paracasei

A. Acid Tolerance Test:

Tolerance to gastric acid (pH 2.0) is critical to probiotics.
*survival rate at pH 2.0 for 3 h:

  • (1) Generic embedded lactic acid bacteria: 1% survival rate at pH 2.0 for 3 h.
  • (2) Our L. paracasei: patented process, good tolerance to low pH, approx. 83.33%.

B. Bile Tolerance Test:

Bile salt inhibits the activity of probiotics.
*survival rate in 1% bile salt for 3 h:

  • (1) Generic embedded lactic acid bacteria: 1% survival rate in 1% bile salt for 3 h.
  • (2) Our L. paracasei: patented process, good tolerance to bile salt, approx. 83.33%.


Lacris-S (Bacillus coagulans): immune regulation

  • Lacris-S is the main ingredient of Sankyo gastrointestinal medicine tablets to neutralize stomach acidity. In Japan, Lacris-S is not only used as an antacid, but also used for promoting gastrointestinal health and ease of allergies, such as pollen allergy.

  • Lacris-S (Bacillus coagulans or Lactobacillus sporogenes) is a lactic acid-forming bacterial species strain. It can form endospores as a protection in harsh environments, such as acidic environment, heat, etc. Therefore, Sporeforming characteristic gives B. coagulans an advantage over other probiotics, especially in the survival rate and colonization in gut.

    • 1.Endospore-forming, production of lactic acid.
    • 2.Gram positive rod.
    • 3.Good tolerance to heat, acid, alkali and salts.
    • 4.Spores are activated and further colonized in gut.

Features

  • 1.Outstanding stability: tolerance to gastric acid, bile acid, and heat

  • 2.Excellent activity: colonization and lactic acid production.

    Digestion of protein in gut produces ammonia leads to constipation (due to the increase of pH of faeces).
    Lacris-S decreases pH of faeces and normalizes the gut environment.
  • 3.Main ingredient of Sankyo gastrointestinal medicine tablets (antacid)

  • 4.JP patent for anti-allergy: JP patent 2007-055986 (特開2007-055986: Anti-allergy Agent抗過敏製劑)


LS-11 : Lactobacillus sporogenes (Bacillus coagulans)

LS-11 (Bacillus coagulans or Lactobacillus sporogenes) is a lactic acid-forming bacterial species strain isolated from malt. It can form endospores as a protection in harsh environments, such as acidic environment, heat, etc.

Strong adherence to human epithelial cells in gut

Human enterocytes

Adherence of LS-11 to enterocytes

Great stability, tolerance to heat, bile salt, and acid.

 

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